Combinations of multiple meditation practices have reduced telomere length (TL) attrition (Carson et al., 2015). We probe the distinct effect on TL changes of mindfulness meditation (MM) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM). Midlife adults (N = 142) were randomized to be in a waitlist control condition or to learn either MM or LKM in a 6 week-workshop. Telomere length was assessed 2 weeks before the start of the workshop and 3 weeks after its termination. After controlling for demographic covariates and baseline TL, we found TL decreased significantly in the MM (B = -.60, p < .001) and control group (B = -.081, p < .001), but not in the LKM group (B = -.028, p =.088). There was significantly less TL attrition in the LKM group than the control group (B = .047, p = .026). The MM group showed changes in TL that were intermediate between the LKM and control groups and was not significantly different from either the LKM (B = -.029, p = .171) or control group (B = .019, p = .323). This study is the first to disentangle the effect of LKM and MM on TL, and suggests that LKM may buffer telomere attrition.