Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop a theoretical model based on critical review of current terrestrial positive thinking theories and spiritual/religious approaches.
Method: To fulfill the stated aim, philosophical and historical foundations of positive thinking in different schools of thought including optimistic model of Seligman, Scheier, Carver, and Bowlby’s model of attachment are critically reviewed. Then, the foundations and constructs of positive psychology are discussed from the perspective of different spiritual/religious transcendence-based and meaning-oriented perspectives.
Results: Based on scientific as well as spiritual/religious foundations, which are combined with the attachment theory of Bowlby, we explain positive thinking applications for individuals' thinking styles about past events, present interpretations of events, and future expectations. Since the attachment theory is a relational theory, positive thinking in this paradigm is discussed in a way that includes individuals' relationship with transcendental being, others, nature, and self.
Conclusion: The fourfold relational paradigm of positive thinking proposed in this study which is based on present positive theories and spiritual/religious transcendence-based perspectives can be utilized by experts for designing interventions suitable for different settings and populations in order to enhance individuals’ well-being.